Regenerative Medicine (RM) is a new upcoming field of science in which lot of researchers are working on. Regenerative Medicine basically is based on the concept of healing degenerative disorders and that is where stem cells come into action. Stem cells are the wonder cells that God has given us naturally.
Stem cells are integral part of our life starting from the single cell stage of our life when the egg from mother and sperm from father fuse together. When the fertilized egg starts to divide the first type of stem cells called Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC’s) are formed. These Embryonic Stem Cells differentiates into three different layers of our body i.e., the endoderm (Inner layer), the mesoderm (Middle layer) and the ectoderm (outer Layer).
Endoderm layer makes the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the lungs, the liver, the pancreas, the colon, the stomach, the intestines and the other glands that open into the GIT and certain other organs such as upper urogenital tract and female vagina.
Ectoderm layer makes the outer linings of our body that includes the epidermis (outermost skin layer), the hair and also form the precursors for mammary glands and the most important nervous system.
Mesoderm layer, the layer in between endoderm and ectoderm that gives raise to other tissues of our body such as the dermis of the skin, the heart, the muscle, the urogenital system, the bones, the bone marrow (which includes the blood). Mesoderm layer plays a major role in our body to have a internal body cavity that houses and protects organs, bathing them in fluids and supporting them with connective tissue.
As the fertilised eggs divide and grow further, when the fetus is formed, we find another type of stem cells called fetal stem cells (FSC’s) which form other fetal tissues. These fetal stem cells further develop into adult stem cells (ASC’s) after the birth of the baby.
After the birth, as we age due to various factors certain degeneration of the organs developed or in some case due to under developed organs many medical conditions such as Muscular Dystrophy, degenerative dementia, Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson’s, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy, Osteoarthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Optic nerve disorders, Retinitis pigmentosa, Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes, Heart diseases and many more are formed.
Scientific fraternity are now investigating the use of Stem cells to treat the degenerative conditions and many clinical trials are in progress. US-FDA has already approved stem cell therapies for few medical conditions.
NeuroCyte Stem Cell Research Center is one of the best in providing Regenerative Medicine in Bangalore, India.